Good summary

Finally took me time to read this and it turned out to be a very good summary of medieval brewing.

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Period rapier cutting in a SCA context based on italian rapier manuals

This is basically a handout from a class I gave at Aros fencing camp 2017, just lightly edited. It might not be an easy to understand or read without the parts where I demonstrate and explain, but I wanted to put it up anyway.  I have lately taken some extra interest in the use of cuts in rapier fencing and therefore done some focused reading, training and test cutting with rapier.  

Was cut common?

Docciolini writes in Chapter 12 of his  Treatise on the Subject of Fencing that the thrust is the “best and most secure” attack, but he describes cuts. Fabris states in his Art of Dueling, in the section called On Cuts, that cuts are slow and that you can never counter-attack while parrying when you use cuts and that cuts “is not a very useful technique”, but then he describes in details different cuts. Also Capo Ferro discourses in Chapter XII of his Simulacro dell’Arte e dell’Uso della Scherma from the use of cuts since you uncover yourself when cutting, but he also writes there are “some usefulness is found in the cut” and later in his book he describes some attacks with cuts. Giganti on the other hand writes in the preface to his second book (Libro secondo) that a man that can’t use cuts “should hold himself to know nothing”. In that book Giganti also describes several attacks with cuts.

So most discourages from the use of them. But they all describe them and how to defend against them, some also has some plates with cutting attacks, so it must have been a part of the normal fencing.

How did they cut?

It is hard to find much details of how they cut, but some information can be wrestled from the manuals.  interesting enough that one of the fencings masters that strongest discourages from the use of cuts are the one that describes them most in details. Fabris describes in On cuts different ways of cutting, of them he prefers the one where cuts are delivered from the wrist, since the body is better covered. But I find Capo Ferros description in the chapter Of some terms of fencing, that pertain to the use the most interesting. He states that “The cuts need to be done as if slicing, because in this manner one comes to strike with all of the debole, because little by little one will come to cut with the sharpest part of the edge”. That is also something I have found when test cutting with different weapons.

I have done some test cutting with sharp weapons on bottles, fabric, meat and myself (yes I know, stupid, don’t do it). A attack that not is a bit slicing won’t work with a rapier, hardly with a longsword but with an axe if you use enough power. A slicing cut on the other hand will very easy and without much force slice through everything I tried it on (including my fingers). You don’t need to deliver much force straight into the target to cut it in pieces. A safe way to test it at home is to take a tomato and a sharp knife. Tapp, hack whatever you like, it won’t cut the tomato, but if you use a slicing motion you will without much force (if the knife is sharp enough) elegant cut slices of tomato.

This way of delivering cuts also make sense, at least to me, if you study the use of cuts in the different masters manuals.

So all in all my interpretation of period cutting with rapier is a slicing motion mostly done with wrist and forearm and without much force delivered straight into the body of the opponent.

Some ways to use cuts with rapier

(see respective manual for exact details)

Below is some ways of using and defending against cuts with rapier that I find covers much of the period use.

Capo Ferro

A figure that parries with the dagger high to the inside and wounds with a roverso to the thigh, and in fourth to the chest as demonstrated in the picture.


A method of coming to grips and giving a cut to the head

The true method of parrying cuts with the sword

Cuts according to Fabris

Are we doing cuts wrong in the SCA?

Yes I think so, at least some of us are, if we want to do it in a period way.

As I see it the rules, both heavy rapier and cut and thrust rewards non-period ways of delivering cuts. Heavy rapier mainly due to safety, but not only. In cut and thrust it is more a reward in winning your bout. I often see (and have sometimes used, I am ashamed to admit) a quick “tap”, like a very light heavy fighting attack. An attack that maybe would have worked with a heavier weapon like an axe, but not with a rapier. But in our context It would work, the opponent will feel (and sometimes hear) the attack, the “tapping” with rapier and take it as a killing blow.

As I wrote above I have done some reading and I can’t find any description of this tapping attack. So far my tests with sharp weapons also suggests that a tapping attack won’t work.

The problem with this proper way of cutting in my experience is that my opponent don’t register my attack. It has less “ompf”, it is harder to feel and it is not making that much noise. Of course this can be avoided if we start training the proper way of delivering cuts.

So if we want to the true period fencing we have to stop using the wrong way of attack and register the right way of doing it.





Capo Ferro, Gran Simulacro dell’Arte e dell’Uso della Scherma,

Translation by: by William Wilson and W. Jherek Swanger

Docciolini, Marco. Treatise on the Subject of Fencing: Marco Docciolini’s 1601 Fencing Treatise. Trans. Piermarco Terminiello and Steven Reich

Fabris, Salvator and Leoni, Tom. Art of Dueling: Salvator Fabris’ Rapier Fencing Treatise of 1606

Giganti, Nicoletto; Pendragon, Joshua; Terminiello, Piermarco. The ‘Lost’ Second Book of Nicoletto Giganti (1608): A Rapier Fencing Treatise

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Pale ale

Nothing fancy, just a basic pale ale. I love complex ales and beers with lots of different flavours, but sometimes I want something a bit more straightforward, but still with some taste. Amarillo adds some nice spicy citrus-like taste and a orange bouquet.

14-liter water

2,4-kg pale ale malt

100-gram caramel malt (caramalt)


10-gram Amarillo boil for 60 minuts

15-gram Northern brewer boil for 15 minuts

30-gram Amarillo add after boil, but before cooling down


Yeast: Fermentis safeale S-04

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My own hops

My first harvest of hops (more of the hops here). Not much, but enough to brew a small batch. This is my first try with wet hop, but if I understand it correctly you use it as with dry hop, but five to six times more.

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Few things are so soothing as the restful bubbling of mead fermenting. Not as rapid as beer it is like meditation to watch it.

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Making metheglin

Doing som brewing, one of my “classics” and not to brag to much, but this taste excellent!  Cinnamon and ginger metheglin.

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Svagdricka (“weak drink”)

Not so medieval, but historical at least. Svagdricka (literally “weak drink”) is a traditional Swedish beverage which was very common during the first half of the last century and you can still find it sometimes at supermarket, especially around Christmas. I think it is a very nice alternative when you don’t want to drink strong beer, wine or anything else with high content of alcohol. It goes very well with traditional Swedish food such as pickled herring. All in all, I think it is worth a revival!

Svagdricka is best described as a sweet, not so hoppy, small beer. I have read theories that it developed from the traditional small beer every farmer (or farmer’s wife mostly) made for them self and during the industrialization when less people could brew for them self the local breweries started to make something that developed into svagdricka. I can’t find any proof for that theory but it is not impossible. In one source (“Mat man åt i Haverö när seklet var ungt”, not online and only in Swedish) I have found a description that farmers during the beginning of the twentieth century brewed svagdricka before harvest time and before Christmas.


According to my father and other friends and relatives that grow up with svagdricka, the kind you sometimes can find in supermarket taste wrong, so me and my brother started to experiment. We used different methods, but after many attempts we both had product that the jury (our father and other from his generation) said was very close to the real thing. Maybe my brother will publish his recipe at his blog someday, but here is mine. I chose to use artificial sweetener since that was used at least since the thirties. Of course, I could have added more malt to get the sweet taste, since the high mashing temperature would give a lot of sugar that the yeast can’t use, but apparently, sweetener was used. My recipe is based on some documentations from last century (“Mat man åt i Haverö när seklet var ungt”) and a modern recipe from the excellent book “Kreativ ölbryggning” (if you know Swedish I highly recommend it, many interesting, funny and strange recipes) and many failures during my experimentation.


This is made as brew in bag and notice that the mashing temperature is very high.


14-liter water

700-gram pilsner malt (3,5 EBC)

270-gram Munchner malt (20 EBC)

540-gram Carapils malt (5 EBC)

270-gram Carahell malt (30 EBC)

20-gram rosted barley (1200 EBC)

90-gram oats


Hops: 15-gram Saaz boil for 60 minutes

Two thirds package dry yeast for baking


Mash at 78 degrees Celsius for 75 minutes, then boil for 60 minutes.


Ferment at 20-25 degrees Celsius.


OG: 35

FG: 20


Add 1 milliliter artificial sweetener per deciliter during bottling, I used 95 milliliter Canderel. I also added 50-gram table sugar for CO2.



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